Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands

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1. Rationale (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

In the 21st century, countries all over the world tend to develop basing on international cooperation. English has become crucial in the way people interact with people around the world; not being able to communicate in English imposes what seem to be formidable limitations. Therefore, English has been adopted as one of the most important subjects in many schools in Vietnam. In this process, they encounter a large number of difficulties. One of them is understanding idioms.

Idioms make a language more interesting and vibrant. Mastering idioms means you are using and understanding the language more like a native speaker would. As for English learners, effectively communicating with others especially native speakers is the ultimate goal. And we cannot reach that goal if we pay little or even no attention to idioms. So grasping the use of idioms is an essential part of English study.

However, what the author wants to express here is that idioms are the precious treasure of national languages that is the key to help learners know about nation, as well as custom and culture of each country all over the world. Therefore, it is the motivation for me to study idioms relating body parts that have made such a deep expression on the author for a long time that she finds it so interesting and useful. Most languages make use of idioms but the way individual words used varies from one language to another and each language has its own system and that they cannot always transfer the metaphorical use of a word from one language to another.

Idioms help learners see the interest, the beauty as well as the cultural color of language which help us use and understand correctly and clearly. The author hopes that learners will understand about idioms and proverbs in English, especially idioms related to people description.  (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

Among all idioms about body parts, idioms about hand is the most common. Because hands are the most commonly used part of everyday life. For example, when meeting an acquaintance, the first thing we do is to raise a hand or shake a hand. Or in a situation where we show our agreement, we will raise our thumbs up, if we disagree, we will raise thumbs down. Therefore, a study on English idioms related to hand has been chosen on this occasion.

2. Aims of the study

Idioms are extremely difficult topics and merely well-understood by foreign English learners and even native speakers of English who take the idioms and proverbs for granted because when they use idioms, they do not know if they are using them. However, they really appreciate the idioms associated to attitudes and behaviors of speakers, so when they hear foreigners make grammatical or pronunciation mistakes, they are quite willing to accept and understand them, they might not understand what that person means and that leads to a misunderstanding and boring conversation. Therefore, this study aims at:

3. Methods of the study (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

Considering all the characteristics, this paper made great use of qualitative method.

A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to gather non-numerical data from the supervisor, experts and friends, which provided more opportunities for explorations. Idioms are collected from dictionary and other sources of information to get valuable knowledge for this paper.

4. Scope of the study

During the research process, the author sees that English idioms, proverbs and expressions about hands are an interesting subject. Idioms and proverbs are a treasure of each country. Because of its immensity, what have known about them is very little. Due to time allowance and limited knowledge, the author

cannot cover all idioms on these issues, this study only focuses on idioms describing hands.

5. Design of the study

This study is composed of three main parts:

  • Part I is the introduction which consists of rationale, aims, study methods, the scope and design of the study.
  • Part II is the development – the main part of this paper, which is divided into three chapters:
  • Chapter one is theoretical background of English idioms, definitions of idioms, how different idioms versus compounds, proverbs and slangs.
  • Chapter two shows some English idioms relating to hands
  • Chapter three indicates some difficulties for learners of English in studying idioms relating to hands, suggested solutions and exercises for practicing.
  • Part III is the conclusion which summarizes what is given in previous parts.


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CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

1.1. Overview

English conversation in human daily speech is full of expressions or phrases that are characteristics of the spoken and written language. These phrases make the native speakers’ language richly idiomatic and it will be a matter of puzzle to many users and students of English.

Until now, there is no complete guide to the large number of phrases that are peculiar to everyday conversation. Any idioms, whatever its types, is deceptive. Its real meaning is not what it appears to be on the surface. Idioms provide an opaque connection between the surface sense of the words and their real individual meaning (Manser:1992).

It is important to understand the history and the use of idioms in daily life before researching in detail the use and the meaning of idioms relating to body parts. Idioms exist in every language and are one of the most magical parts of learning a language. That is because idioms, also known as idiomatic expressions, are a type of formulaic language in which the exact meaning of the expression cannot be derived from direct translation. Though different in structure, all examples of different languages have a few things in common. All are fixed expressions that cannot be translated literally or significantly altered, and are often used in everyday speech by native speakers. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

Idioms require a moment of hesitation, to ponder their meaning. Once the underlying message behind an idiom emerges, it causes one to pause and consider the truth behind the saying. The more familiar with idiomatic expressions you become, the more likely you can incorporate them in to your own English writing and speech- should you find an appealing situation in which to use one. They are often impressive and enjoyable to share.

Idioms honestly and exactly reflect history, experience, spiritual value, religious opinion of people.

1.1.1. Definition of Idioms

It is important to recognize that idioms are not only colloquial expression as many people believe. Idioms as a special form of language that carries a large amount of cultural information, such as history, geography, religious, custom, thinking pattern and so on. They appear in formal style, in slang, in poetry,… To research idioms, first of all, we must understand what an idiom is? This is the old theme that we discuss it. Because to define the idiom exactly is a difficult question. In the definition of idioms, some scholars emphasize on the quantity of structure in idioms. That is to say how many language units to constitute the idioms? Is it except the phrases, words group, and words or sentences also can make up to the idioms? Others emphasize the single meanings of idioms it refers that the idiom’s meaning is arbitrary. The idiom’s meanings cannot synthesize or cut apart. Different people hold the different opinions on the definition of idioms; they have different local points on the definition of idiom. So we must understand the definition of idioms exactly through the research.

Although we are unlikely to give an ideal definition to the idioms, but we should give a better definition of idioms before the research. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

According to Richards and Schmidt (2002, p.246), an idiom is “an expression which functions as a single unit and whose meaning cannot be worked out from its separate parts”. Makkai (1972, p.122) defines “idiom” as multiword expressions whose meaning is not predictable from their component parts. So, for example, although you might know the meaning of the words “storm” and “teacup”, it would be very difficult to guess the meaning of the idiom “a storm in a teacup”, which is a situation where people get very upset or angry over something that is not important.

An idiom is an expression with the following features: It is fixed and is recognized by native speakers. You cannot make up your own; It uses language in a non-literal-metaphorical- way”. Jon Wright (2000, p.9)

Idioms are phrases that do not mean exactly what they say. They have “hidden” meanings, like the idiom “to let the cat out of the bag” really means “to tell a secret”. Idioms are like sayings.

An idiom is a group of words in current usage having a meaning that is not deducible from those of the individual words. Eg: “Behind one’s back” – which means “ when one is not present” is an idiom; and “face to face” – means “confronting each other” – is another idiom, in both cases, we would have a hard time to understand the real meaning if we did not already know these idioms. According to the online dictionary Wikipedia:

An idiom is an expression whose meaning is not compositional – that is whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of which it is composed

There are many definitions of idiom in our society. In short, the idioms consist of set phrases and short sentences, which are peculiar to the language in question and steeped in the national and religion, culture and ideas, thus being colorful, forcible and thought – provoking. Strictly speaking, idioms are expressions that are not readily understandable from their literal meanings of individual constituents. In a broad sense, idioms may include colloquialism, catchphrases, slang expressions, proverbs and so on. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

1.1.2. Types of idioms

There are many opinions about types of idioms, according to Tim Nicolas at Essex University structural and psychological perspectives; (1995: p237-238), there are some kinds of idioms which are classified based on structure of sentence:

Verb + bare singular noun phrase

Ex: carry weight

Verb + non definite plural noun phrase

Ex: speak volumes

Verb + a + noun

Ex: come a cropper

Verb +the +noun

Ex: bite the dust

Verb + one’s (own)+ noun

Ex: change one’s tune

Verb + noun phrase +noun

Ex: pull somebody’s leg

Support-type verb + non definite noun phrase

Ex: make a splash

1.1.3. Features of idioms

Idiomatic expressions can be diagnosed by some properties that are extracted from its practical use in variable discourses. The features that are set below are extracted from an article labeled “Czech and English Idioms of Body Parts: A View from Cognitive Semantics, EnglishLanguage”: (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

  1. Idioms are conventional, i.e. they are well- established style.
  2. Idioms have paradigmatic fixity, i.e. The individual elements of idioms are unable to be substituted in the same place of its context.
  3. Idioms are transformationally anomalous, i.e. they are a unique group of words that cannot be created according to a specific pattern.
  4. From the formal viewpoint, idioms have combinatory abilities that are not identical with the combinatory abilities of a regular language.
  5. From the semantic point of view, idioms have no compositional function, i.e. The total meaning of an idiom cannot be predicted from the meaning of its individual parts.
  6. Idioms have compositeness, i.e. an idiom is a combination of two or more words which function as a unit of meaning and that exactly what is called semantic unity.
  7. Idioms have a special nature that makes them unique; they are richer than the literal language in terms of their structure and semantic features.
  8. Idioms cause a high degree of disinformation potential, i.e. the individual parts of idioms are polysemous and can be misunderstood by the listener.
  9. Idioms are institutionalized, i.e. they are conventionalized and cannot be changed.

1.1.4. Idioms versus slangs

Slangs prefer to the terms that are recognizd as casual or playful. Idioms are yesterday’s slang and slang is tomorrow’s idioms which have through use and over time become acceptable to be used in the informal language. Thus, we cannot use this idiom in writing or in formal spoken English. This expression is idiomatic becasue we can not guess its total meaning form its separate parts or words. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

1.1.5. Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb plus an adverb, like “make up” and “put down”. We can know its possible idiomaticity by putting those examples under specific exam. For example, we have the verb “make up” that has the meaning of the verb “invent”, we can consider it as an idiomatic verb because the totel meaning of “make up” is different from the meaning of the verb “make” and the adverb “up”. This phrasal verb is high in the ladder of idiomaticity. (Palmer:1981)

1.1.6. Partial Idioms

These are type of idioms which appear when the meaning of one of the words has its usual meaning, while the other has a meaning that is peculiar or unusual to the particular sequence; for example the idiom “red hair” refers to hair, but not the red one in strict. We have another partial idiom like “make your bed”. This idiom can be used as a comic expression by comedians when is said in a play, the reaction will be bringing a set of carpenter’s tools in order to produce a funny situation.

1.1.7. Syntactic Restrictions

There are some syntactic restrictions concerning the idioms for example, we cannot change the number of the nouns of idioms that is why we cannot say, “spill the bean” instead of “spill the beans” . In addition, we cannot give the comparative and superlative form of the adjectives in idioms. Thus, we cannot say ‘‘redder herring’’ instead of ‘‘red herring’’. We have some syntactic restrictions of idioms we cannot passives some idioms like ‘‘the bucket was kicked’’. So idioms have some restriction in their use we rather use them as they are with stability and fixity (Palmer, 1981:p43).

1.1.8. Strategies of Interpreting Idioms

Idioms and their interpretation depend on a conceptual theory, which is developed by the cognitive linguists who are concerned with the fact that our thinking in idiom interpretation is metaphorical and that is reflected in its use. The explanation of idioms are rendered in terms of three cognitive strategies: (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

  1. Conceptual metaphor,
  2. General conventional knowledge
  3. Metonymies

The general conventional knowledge refers to all the information that people have about the world around them, it is somehow unconscious, because people do not recall the general conventional knowledge when they are speaking, thus the process is usually done unconsciously.

Conceptual metaphors and metonymies are the cognitive devices which provide a link between the concrete knowledge of the world people hold in their memory and the figurative meaning of a given idiom. That means, we have an abstract area in our mind which needs to be brought into our everyday use. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

From the cognitive viewpoint, idioms are considered as a product of our conceptual system. Idioms are just expressions that carry meaning which is different from the meaning of its individual parts, but it comes from our general knowledge of the world that is embodied in our conceptual system. That shows when a number of people share the same experience in life or the same culture. Those who share the same stories, traditions, and experiences can understand and interpret them easily rather than those who are not native speaker. That is because people of the same culture share the same images that are stored in their memory and that are gathered through their life. Some linguists like Tylia, Bragina, and Oparina suggest that culture is like a channel through which language is passed from one community to another and that what is called ‘‘cultural connotation’’.

Idioms seem to be difficult lexical items to interpret, but if we look at the conceptual metaphors which underlie idioms, we will be much closer to understand them. It is indicated that conceptual thinking of understanding idioms is like a vehicle which connects the literal meaning of the words to their idiomatic meaning. Thus, with idioms that revolve round “head” native speakers are able to infer the idiomatic meaning because they subconsciously know what the word “head” means. So the process of interpreting idioms is conducted successfully when the three cognitive strategies, i.e. conventional knowledge, conceptual metaphors and metonymies are at work. Those can easily simplify most of the inferences about the meaning of idiomatic expressions.

Another factor that helps us to understand and infer idioms, is ‘‘context’’ in the sense that the surrounding co-text has a strong effect on what we think the word means. Context helps to interpret the meaning of idiomatic phrases. We cannot infer the meaning of an idiom unless we know the context by which we can comprehend the total meaning. Context is very important for the interpretation of literal language and more important to interpret idioms, which have figurative meaning. (Palmer, 1981:p43) argues that misinformation and confusion often result from our inability to infer the meanings of idioms, which are contextually misplaced. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

Idioms have function in human discourse. Idioms focus on the massage content including actions. Idioms are interactional including greetings and farewells so that they can secure the cohesion of discourse. The discoursal cohesion seems to rely semantically on idioms. People use idiomatic expressions in order to express their opinion, feeling, emotions, evaluation of events, agreement with or rejection of, other people’s statements. Those expressions also show whether this massage can be understood, and predicted or not. Although idioms behave as semantic units, their syntactic behavior poses problems. Thus, the sentence “he kick the bucketed yesterday” sounds awkward. Thus the only correct form of past tense is ‘‘kicked the bucket’’, so we cannot consider an idiom like a single word but they are sequence of grammatical words.

1.2. Language, Culture, Idioms, and Their Relationship with the Foreign Language

Given that language is used to construct our social lives and using this understanding to improve our world, languageand culture are inextricably intermingled. This togetherness has been widely highlighted in several linguistic, social and cultural studies (e.g. Alptekin, 2002; Brown, 1994; Bygate, 2005; Jiang, 2000; MacKenzie, 2012; Risager, 2007;).

Peterson and Coltrane (2003) emphasize that to achieve desired communication, culturally appropriate language use appear to be a must. In other words, knowledge of linguistic features is not adequate for successful intercultural communication (Scarino, 2010). This knowledge, in fact, must be supported by an awareness of sociocultural context, tendencies, conventions, and norms in which the communication takes place (Baker, 2012). Likewise, Byram and Risager’s (1999, cited in Al-Issa, 2005) argument that culture has a crucial role in encoding and decoding messages corroborates with the above mentioned idea that culture is at the heart of communication. Culture as a body of knowledge of common beliefs, behaviors and values appear to be the factor to establish and interpret meaning in both verbal and nonverbal language. Alptekin explains (2002) this conceptualizing process as the enculturation of the foreign language learner and states: “ Learners are not only expected to acquire accurate forms of the target language, but also to learn how to use these forms in given social situations in the target language setting to convey appropriate, coherent and strategically- effective meanings for the native speaker’. Thus learning a new language becomes a kind of enculturation, where one acquires new cultural frames of reference and a new world view, reflecting those of the target language culture and its speakers.” (2002, p.58) The close relation between language, culture, and the integration of culture into language learning are not new phenomena (Cortazzi& Jin, 1996; Dogancay-Aktuna, 2005; Guest, 2002; Moraine, 1976, Porto, 2010; Suzuki, 2010; Yuen, 2011). (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

Rather than cultural orientation, Scarino (2010) highlights the intercultural orientation which aims at changes students’ views throughout learning.

As an advantage of such a transition, Scarino states that “they come to understand culture not only as information about diverse people and their practices but also, and most importantly, as the contextual framework that people use to exchange meaning in communication with others and through which they understand their social world.” (2010, p.324)

Min (2007) categorizes culture in English under two phenomena; high culture, and anthropological culture. The first underlines the intellectual and artistic achievements; the second refers to any of the customs, worldviews, languages, and conventions that make some people distinct from other social group. Culture, accordingly, encompasses three aspects, that is, material culture, social (institutional) culture and ideological culture.

Relation among cultures begins at the material level and gradually affects the social and ideological culture. As the material culture grows more, the social and ideological cultures change faster. In other words, micro level interaction leads to macro level influence. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

However, this change is gradual and difficult, sometimes painstaking, even revolutionary. As a part of culture, ideologies find their clearest expressions in language. Language, as a special product of human society and an instrument of human thinking and communication, is a kind of institutional culture. Given the intermingled relationship between language and culture, the analysis of the ideological ground enriches the analysis of linguistic forms which show the language forms.

Behind linguistic utterances there lies an ideological background which influences the linguistic preferences and ways. This connection occurs at lexical-semantic and grammatical-semantic levels, and at the textual level (Hatim & Mason, 1990; cited in Min, 2007, p.217). Peterson and Coltrane (2003, cited in Al-Issa, 2005 ) state that language and culture are interwoven and the students’ success in achieving higher level of oral proficiency in target language relies on the consideration of culture in designing and developing course materials.

Cognitive and corpus linguistics have provided pedagogically sound approaches. Given the language of thought as a continuum ranging from simple to complex units, including idioms, they play a significant role in the linguistic system but not merely for ornamental purposes in language. (Boers et al., 2008)

Research findings show that formulaic chunks constitute at least one-third to one-half of language (Erman and Warren 2000; Foster 2001; cited in Conklin& Schmitt 2008; Howarth 1998; p.72). In the traditional view, idioms, notoriously difficult (Celce-Murcia& Larsen-Freeman, 1999) are considered special multiwords, and merely a matter of linguistic device with a special meaning and have certain syntactic properties. However, Kovecses (2002, p. 201) suggests that in contrast to traditional view, an idiom is not merely an extraordinary and somewhat complicated utterance of meaning which is special and hard to understand and requires deep linguistic knowledge, but many of them arises from our conceptual understanding comes from human’s conceptual system which is natural and not subtle. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

If figurative language such as idioms, metaphors, metonymies is pervasive in real life as a part of the culture, then it is not surprising that language learners will be certainly encountered and exposed with idiomatic expressions as a part of language learning and they should attempt to build up their knowledge of idioms if they want to survive in real communication settings. (Boers et al., 2004, p.376) However, idioms in particular are widely recognized to be a stumbling block (Buckingham, 2006) in the acquisition of a foreign language; though they are often recognized as incongruous, occasionally ungrammatical and difficult to figure out and resistant to translation for language learners and their contribution to communicative competence and intercultural awareness is both theoretically and empirically acknowledged (Boers et al, 2004; Kovecses& Szabo, 1996; Lin, 2012; Littlemore& Low 2006; Martinez & Schmitt, 2012). English is a language which is full of idiomatic expressions, hence learning these idioms constitutes the spirit of language (Elkilic, 2008), and idioms have a considerable role in an L2.

Learning idiomatic expressions will enhance the students’ communicative ability and will result in understanding cultural norms. (Samani and Hashemian, 2012, p. 249) As the meaning of idiomatic expressions are not formed within conventional rules and often seen non-compositional in nature (Fernando and Flavell, 1981), lack of reliable clues to understand and interpret has led to the assumption that the only way to learn idiomatic expressions is rote-learning (Boers et al., 2007). Cognitive semantic studies (Gibbs, 1994; Kövecses, 1990; Lakoff, 1987), however, there are many idioms which are not arbitrary but motivated by conceptual metaphoric and metonymic understanding. As in of the common examples, the conceptual metaphor TIME IS A MOVING OBJECT can be thought to motivate some figurative expressions that are frequently used in real life (e.g “Time flies”, “I’m falling behind schedule again”, and the holidays are approaching and those days are over) .To support this argument, Grant’s finding (2004) attracts attention, thus Grant suggests that considerably small number of entries in idiom dictionaries is non-compositional and is therefore hard for learners. Another study (Boers, 2000) has shown that vocabulary retention can be facilitated by raising learners’ metaphoric awareness. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

Further, students have been found to recall idioms when they are connected with their literal meaning (Boers, 2001).

Since the 1970s idioms have received significant attention and though in literature there have existed diverse idiom theories about idiomatic process (i.e. comprehension and production) (e.g. Cacciari & Tabossi, 1988; Swinney and Cutler, 1979; Tabossi et al., 2009; Tabossi & Zardon, 1993) it is strongly claimed native speakers of a language faster process idiomatic expressions compared to literal usage.

In addition to the studies with the native speakers, nonnative speakers have become the centre of studies in the literature with regard to idiom processing. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

For instance, Van Lancker-Sidtis (2003) investigated the impact of prosodic cues on helping the native and non native speakers in making a difference between two idiom interpretations. The results of study indicated that prosodic cues help native speakers to distinguish between figurative and literal use of idioms compared to the non-native participants though they were proficient language users, and nonnative speakers had significantly more difficulties. Nevertheless, Conklin and Schmitt (2008) did an experiment of self-paced moving- window reading to study how native and proficient non-native speakers comprehend idioms. The result of the study revealed that both groups read idioms faster than novel phrases and there is not any significant difference in both groups between figurative and literal meaning processing.

Language and culture are closely connected to each other. Language embodies and transfers culture. Varieties in language use within culture create different views. Learning a second culture is often intricately intertwined with learning a second language.

Teaching second language should be accompanied with teaching second culture. Given a pedagogical perspective, knowing idioms not only makes the speech language learners productive and enriched, but also help them to learn and understand the thinking that the people learn the language. Interpretation in terms of culture means the study of language symbols and cultural concepts in foreign language classes, not only possible but also necessary. Idioms and the role of “language” in culture can integrate form and content, therefore, not only previous knowledge of the language teachers and their personal experience help, but numerous terminology of culture and interpretations are also important.

CHAPTER 2: ENGLISH IDIOMS RELATED TO HANDS (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

In all types of idioms related to human body parts, idioms related to hands are frequently used in daily life. We use them to tell, assess, judge or criticize people through their appearance and characters in different contexts. With human’s body parts, the author have a special attention to idioms related to hands because of its variety in English. There are many idioms describing them and they are often used in living language. In this research, the researcher wants to give some idioms relating to hands. They are interesting idioms which the researcher collected and analyzed to find out their popularity and effectiveness when using them in literature and daily communication. They are only compounds, phrases or words but they make your conversations or work better much more who read your work will be satisfied that they had when they talk to you or read your works. This chapter consists of the analysis of some common English idioms related to hand which the reseacher collected.

2.1. English idioms about hands

2.1.1. English idioms containing hands

As previously mentioned, an idiom is generally seen as a colloquial metaphor and thanks to this metaphorical characteristic, idioms, including idioms which contain human-body parts, make languages colorful and rich, thus enabling them to effectively reflect human experiences and the ways people understand the world around them. Since human body is very familiar to human beings, especially the idiom about the hand, idioms containing hands are closely associated with the sensual aspects of human existence. Stoyanova (2009) claims that hands expressions or somatic phrases are one of the most frequently encountered idiom types in English. (Khóa Luận: A study on English idioms related to hands)

The semantic features of English human body-part idioms are no less important. They can express human passions and feelings or traits of human character. Accordingly, Stoyanova divides human-body-part idioms into several thematic groups:

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