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PART I: INTRODUCTION
(Moore, 2005) said IELTS s’ growth is obvious to be unavoidable because of the increasing number of universities that require students to use IELTS and because of the large number of students who want to take a course in English-speaking countries. IELTS has become one of the prerequisites for graduation at a number of universities and colleges in Vietnam. Therefore, the demand for learning IELTS is increasing. IELTS comprises two modules: general and academic. The IELTS assessment includes four language competencies: listening, reading, speaking and writing. Although some EFL Vietnam students have taken the IELTS test, they were unable to get an appropriate band score. One of the explanations for the challenges facing students in this examination is listening. Unlike others skill in IELTS, there is no rewind in listening. For example, in reading skills, candidates can turn over an entire reading to find key words or have time to consider a topic before putting pen in writing skills. Moreover, points could be regained in speaking test by examiner’s factors. Since it can be the most difficult skill in language learning, most studies have been carried out in many aspects in order to look at it. Therefore, this study is conducted for the purpose of adding more data in the endless gap of the local context of teaching and learning the IELTS test in Vietnam.
1.2. Aim of the study (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
My graduation paper focuses specifically on the investigation of method used by the teachers at AMES center and give some suggestions for applying the new methods to enhance the students’ self – learning for improvements in their listening skills. The specific aims of the research are as follows: To investigate the teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the application of listening methods in self-learning. To find out the most common technique contents exploited by the teachers at AMES center. To examine the students’ preferences for the model practice. To give some suggestions for using the up-to-date solution to enhance students’ self-listening learning.
1.3. Research questions
As a basis for my investigation, the following research questions were formulated:
- What is the difficulties of IELTS listening ?
- What are the techniques to improve the listening skill in IELTS ?
1.4. Methods of the study (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
To seek answers to the research questions, the data are analyzed from material collection and were collected from survey questionnaires. First of all, for the theoretical basis, a lot of reference materials on listening skills and portfolios have been collected, analyzed and synthesized carefully with the due consideration for the teachers’ and students’ teaching and learning situations. Secondly, the questionnaires are carried out with the teachers and the students to collect the most reliable data for the study.
1.5. Design of the study
The thesis is divided into three parts :
Part I : Introduction ; Part II : Development ; Part III : Conclusion
Part I: Introduction
This chapter provides an overview of the study such as the rationale, the aims, research questions, design and methods of the study. Part II: Development
Chapter 1: Theoretical background
This chapter conceptualizes Ielts test and the nature of the listening comprehension, the importance of listening and the importance of students’ self-access listening
Chapter 2 : devoted to Research methodology
Chapter 3 : deals with findings and discussion.
Part 3: Conclusion
Conclusion summarizes all the obtained results and includes suggestions for further study.
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
I. Listening comprehension 1.1. The definition of listening
To begin with, listening is the selection and assignment of meaning to sound. When we listen we attempt to give importance to what we recognize and what we want to hear. In different words, we pick what information is essential to pay attention to, in order to strive to be capable to recognize the message any one is giving us in order to respond (Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002).
According to Rivers (1981), listening is an innovative skill. The innovative part of it happens when you recognize what action (or non-action) to take to guide what you hear, meaning that listeners must have an energetic function when listening in order to meet a specific purpose.
Lindsay and Knight (2006) claim that people have different purposes when they listen. To study a new language, for instance, it is essential to outline what listening reason you have – listening for precise details, listening for universal which means or thinking – to assist beginners prepare their thoughts and use shrewd guesswork to ensure beginners meet your listening cause. Consequently, for this examine the focus became on developing listening for gist and listening for specific records skills. Listening is the important skill that permits learners to use their other abilities. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Listening is the primary ability that permits beginners to apply their other abilities. Listening is the primary ability that permits beginners to apply their other abilities. If a learner is capable of recognise what they hear they’ll have much less trouble speaking, as Rost (1994) mentions, because listening is absolutely important since it affords input for the learner. Furthermore, if novices do no longer recognize the enter they acquire, the mastering process virtually cannot begin.
Language mastering relies upon greatly on listening because the fact that it’s far the ability that provides the primary impulse that initiates first, 2nd and foreign language learning that sustains the getting to discover manner (Morris & Leavey, 2006). In addition, more than three quarters of what children learn in school happens through listening in the classroom (Hunsaker, 1990).
1.2. Types of listening (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
A widely wide-spread categorization of listening has been brought by Wolvin and Coakly ( 1988,1993).
1.2.1. General Listening Types:
The two main types of listening – the foundations of all listening sub-types are:
- Discriminative Listening
- Comprehensive Listening a. Discriminative Listening
Discriminative listening is first developed at a very early age – perhaps even before birth, in the womb. This is the most basic form of listening and does not involve the understanding of the meaning of words or phrases but merely the different sounds that are produced. In early childhood, for example, a distinction is made between the sounds of the voices of the parents – the voice of the father sounds different to that of the mother.
Discriminative listening develops through childhood and into adulthood. As we grow older and develop and gain more life experience, our ability to distinguish between different sounds is improved. Not only can we recognise different voices, but we also develop the ability to recognise subtle differences in the way that sounds are made – this is fundamental to ultimately understanding what these sounds mean. Differences include many subtleties, recognising foreign languages, distinguishing between regional accents and clues to the emotions and feelings of the speaker. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Being able to distinguish the subtleties of sound made by somebody who is happy or sad, angry or stressed, for example, ultimately adds value to what is actually being said and, of course, does aid comprehension. When discriminative listening skills are combined with visual stimuli, the resulting ability to ‘listen’ to body-language enables us to begin to understand the speaker more fully – for example recognising somebody is sad despite what they are saying or how they are saying it.
“ Imagine yourself surrounded by people who are speaking a language that you cannot understand. Perhaps passing through an airport in another country. You can probably distinguish between different voices, male and female, young and old and also gain some understanding about what is going on around you based on the tone of voice, mannerisms and body language of the other people. You are not understanding what is being said but using discriminative listening to gain some level of comprehension of your surroundings.”
Comprehensive listening involves understanding the message or messages that are being communicated. Like discriminative listening, comprehensive listening is fundamental to all listening sub-types. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
In order to be able use comprehensive listening and therefore gain understanding the listener first needs appropriate vocabulary and language skills. Using overly complicated language or technical jargon, therefore, can be a barrier to comprehensive listening. Comprehensive listening is further complicated by the fact that two different people listening to the same thing may understand the message in two different ways. This problem can be multiplied in a group setting, like a classroom or business meeting where numerous different meanings can be derived from what has been said.
Comprehensive listening is complimented by sub-messages from non-verbal communication, such as the tone of voice, gestures and other body language. These non-verbal signals can greatly aid communication and comprehension but can also confuse and potentially lead to misunderstanding. In many listening situations it is vital to seek clarification and use skills such as reflection aid comprehension.
1.2.2. Specific Listening Types
Discriminative and comprehensive listening are prerequisites for specific listening types. Listening types can be defined by the goal of the listening. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
The three main types of listening most common in interpersonal communication are:
- Informational Listening (Listening to Learn)
- Critical Listening (Listening to Evaluate and Analyse)
- Empathetic Listening (Listening to Understand Feeling and Emotion) a. Informational Listening
Whenever you listen to learn something, you are engaged in informational listening. This is true in many day-to-day situations, in education and at work, when you listen to the news, watch a documentary, when a friend tells you a recipe or when you are talked-through a technical problem with a computer.
Although all types of listening are ‘active’ – they require concentration and a conscious effort to understand. Informational listening is less active than many of the other types of listening. When we’re listening to learn or be instructed we are taking in new information and facts, we are not criticising or analysing. Informational listening, especially in formal settings like in work meetings or while in education, is often accompanied by note taking – a way of recording key information so that it can be reviewed later. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Developing your informational listening skills is a great way to set yourself up if you’re starting a new job, beginning a new academic adventure, or fancy doing some self-development studies around things that really interest you.
Critical listening involves just that – being critical about what is being said, taking the important bits and making a judgment as needed. Essentially, this type of listening is great in the business world – it helps listeners get to the point quickly and keeps things streamlined and efficient.
By using critical listening as a skill, we can make decisions sooner as well as coming up with solutions to problems and analysis of situations much quicker. ‘Critical’ can often have a negative connotation, but in this context, it simply means cutting through what is being said to lift out the most important, relevant parts.
This is a great skill to learn when it comes to business meetings, anything involving finances, and any kind of high-stress situation.
By taking on board the most crucial information from what someone says, we can learn to reach a conclusion much sooner and more easily. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
‘Critical’ also means to scrutinize what is being said and take some things with a pinch of salt. It requires us to seek the truth amongst the noise of opinion and exaggeration.
Critical listening is a key part of the critical thinking process.
This is really similar to sympathetic listening, but takes things to a new level. Rather than looking on as an observer and feeling for the person (be it sadness, anger, or joy!), empathetic listeners essentially experience the feelings for themselves. This is a sign of a really close friendship or relationship – to feel someone’s pain or happiness is to love them and care deeply for them. It can be quite intense at times and can really weigh deeply on the listener if they are not careful. This style of listening is also known as Therapeutic Listening, and for obvious reasons. By putting ourselves in someone else’s shoes, we’re better able to help them through their situation.
Counsellors, therapists and some other professionals use therapeutic or empathic listening to understand and ultimately help their clients. This type of listening does not involve making judgements or offering advice but gently encouraging the speaker to explain and elaborate on their feelings and emotions. Skills such as clarification and reflection are often used to help avoid misunderstandings We are all capable of empathic listening and may practise it with friends, family and colleagues. Showing empathy is a desirable trait in many interpersonal relationships – you may well feel more comfortable talking about your own feelings and emotions with a particular person. They are likely to be better at listening empathetically to you than others, this is often based on similar perspectives, experiences, beliefs and values – a good friend, your spouse, a parent or sibling for example.
1.3. The importance of listening (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Listening is getting increasingly more critical in lots of foreign language contexts, that have tilled tremendously currently focused their efforts at the development of different language skills including writing abilities. This growing significance is reflected within the proliferation of commercially listening guides. The importance of listening in second and foreign language gaining knowledge of is admirably summarized in the latest e-book via Rost (1994): “ Listening is crucial in the language classroom as it gives input for the freshmen. Without information enter on the proper stage, any learning actually cannot start ”. Brett (1997: 39) additionally states that “listening is a key language skill. It has a crucial role inside the language acquisition procedure”.
In assessment with other language abilities, a few research on listening shows that on average human beings can expect to concentrate “two times as plenty as we talk, four times greater than what we read and five times extra than we generally write” (Morley, 2001). (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Greater importantly, there is an increasing number of research indicating the sheer importance of listening in the communique and language studying (Anderson and Lynch, 1988; Dunkel, 1991). What’s greater, Michael Lewis (1993: 32) highlights “almost all the international’s natural language output is spoken rather written”. Being an critical ability for almost interaction, listening is therefore the maximum primary medium for input in language gaining knowledge of technique and with the aid of speeding up the scholars’ capacity to understand speech, the amount of enter they get will increase and hence aid students’ language acquisition. It is obvious that we listen for many different purposes in and out of the classroom; this has an effect on the way we listen. Yule and Brown (1983) make a useful distinction between interactional and transactional communication.
Mccarthy, (1991) in discourse, defines transactional talk (and listening) as verbal exchange for buying commercial enterprise achieved. Interactional verbal exchange, then again, has to do with lubricating the social wheels. In listening (1988) Anderson and Lynch illustrate them as (transactional) listening when the main purpose is to reap a successful transfer of information, whilst interactional listening is described as listening for social reasons, and to set up or maintain pleasant relations among interlocutors. In short, listening is essential not only as receptive skill but also to the development of spoken language prophecy.
CÓ THỂ BẠN QUAN TÂM ĐẾN DỊCH VỤ
1.4. The difficulty of listening
It is quintessential to acknowledge that listening can be quite challenging, mainly for young rookies. When supplied with a new language, inexperienced persons attempt to apprehend it in terms of cues of their first language (Cameron, 2001), which is still in a growing technique itself. As human beings aren’t always communicating face-to-face listeners can not expect the verbal exchange because there is no visible guide, nor can they ask someone to copy or try and provide an explanation for it in a different way, for example, while you concentrate to a cd. For that reason, listening is regarded as one of the most tough competencies to learn and therefore to educate (subject, 2008) because of the reality that listening is pretty complicated and calls for an active process of interpretation wherein listeners must attempt to understand the messages they pay attention with using the expertise they already possess (rost, 2002). (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Further, they can not manipulate the selection of vocabulary, structure or rate of conveyance of the speakers. As language instructors we must additionally ensure that children are aware that regardless of their best attempt, at times, they will nevertheless stumble upon some problems and challenges as improving listening is a process that requires time and exercise and that they’re not predicted to recognize each phrase on every occasion that they’re asked to do listening activities (Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002).
According to Bloomfield et al. (2011), there are some other elements concerning the traits of the listeners that can additionally have a main impact on their capacity to hear efficiently. Namely, listeners’ working memory capability which is mirrored by using their capability of understanding more of what they hear when they are listening to L2 (A person’s second language ) languageIn addition, more than a few of factors pertaining to listeners’ enjoy with the l2 impact their listening talents, which include the amount of publicity to the language, familiarity and ability to apprehend the phonology of the goal language, the quantity of vocabulary supplied and history information approximately the subject.
Bloomfield et al. (2011) also claim that it is necessary to be aware that listeners’ nervousness affects their capability to apprehend what they can hear, specifically young newbies who have a tendency to succumb to distractions every now and then and are unable to focus their attention for long duration of time on the same activity, which makes it even extra difficult for them to hear efficaciously.
Therefore, we ought to strive to maximize our students’ getting to know capacity in class thru listening (Rivers, 1981) as this ability is the first segment that connects language with that means. Furthermore, speaking, proceeds listening cognitively (Bozorgian, 2012) as a consequence, listening affords the input that resources the premise for language acquisition and lets in beginners to interact in spoken verbal exchange.
1.5. The types of problems in listening (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Fan Yagang (1996) has conducted a study on “Listening: Problems and Solutions”. It has been indicated that in teaching listening comprehension one must be careful not to go to extremes, either by being concerned too exclusively with theories without thinking about their application to teaching, or by obstinately following frozen routines-opening the textbook and explaining new words, playing the tape recorder, and asking/answering questions. It has been suggested that a teacher should have an overall understanding of what listening is, why it is difficult for foreign language learners and how to bridge the gap between analysis of listening and actual classroom teaching. In his study, the evidence that shows why listening is difficult divided into mainly four sources:
- The message
- The speaker
- The listener
- The physical setting.
1.5.1. The Message
Content. Many learners find it more difficult to listen to a taped message than to read the same message on a piece of paper, since the listening passage comes into the ear in the twinkling of an eye, whereas reading material can be read as long as the reader likes. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
The listening material may deal with almost any area of life. It might include street gossip, proverbs, new products, and situations unfamiliar to the student. Also, in a spontaneous conversation speakers frequently change topics.
The content is usually not well organized. In many cases listeners cannot predict what speakers are going to say, whether it is a news report on the radio, an interviewer’s questions, an everyday conversation, etc.
Messages on the radio or recorded on tape cannot be listened to at a slower speed. Even in conversation it is impossible to ask the speaker to repeat something as many times as the interlocutor might like
Liaison is the linking of sounds or words. When we say a sentence in
English, we join or “link” words to each other. Because of this linking, the words in a sentence do not always sound the same as when we say them individually. .
Two things on above are common phenomena that make it difficult for students to distinguish or recognize individual words in the stream of speech. They are used to seeing words written as discrete entities in their textbooks.
If listening materials are made up of everyday conversation, they may contain a lot of colloquial words and expressions, such as stuff for material, guy for man, etc., as well as slang. Students who have been exposed mainly to formal or bookish English may not be familiar with these expressions. In spontaneous conversations people sometimes use ungrammatical sentences because of nervousness or hesitation. They may omit elements of sentences or add something redundant. This may make it difficult for the listener to understand the meaning. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
1.5.3. The Speaker
Ur (1984:7) points out that “ In ordinary conversation or even in much extempore speech-making or lecturing we actually say a good deal more than would appear to be necessary in order to convey our message. Redundant utterances may take the form of repetitions, false starts, re-phrasings, self-corrections, elaborations, tautologies, and apparently meaningless additions such as I mean or you know.” This redundancy is a natural feature of speech and may be either a help or a hindrance, depending on the students’ level. It may make it more difficult for beginners to understand what the speaker is saying; on the other hand, it may give advanced students more time to “tune in” to the speaker’s voice and speech style. Learners tend to be used to their teacher’s accent or to the standard variety of British or American English. They find it hard to understand speakers with other accents. Spoken prose, as in news broadcasting and reading aloud written texts, is characterized by an even pace, volume, pitch, and intonation. Natural dialogues, on the other hand, are full of hesitations, pauses, and uneven intonation. Students used to the former kinds of listening material may sometimes find the latter difficult to understand.
1.5.4. The Listener
Foreign-language students are not familiar enough with clichés and collocations in English to predict a missing word or phrase. They cannot, for example, be expected to know that rosy often collocates with cheeks nor to predict the last word will be something like rage when they hear the phrase he was in a towering. This is a major problem for students. Lack of sociocultural, factual, and contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension because language is used to express its culture (Anderson and Lynch 1988). (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Foreign-language learners usually devote more time to reading than to listening, and so lack exposure to different kinds of listening materials. Even our college students majoring in English have no more than four hours’ regular training per week. Both psychological and physical factors may have a negative effect on perception and interpretation of listening material. It is tiring for students to concentrate on interpreting unfamiliar sounds, words, and sentences for long periods.
Noise, including both background noises on the recording and environmental noises, can take the listener’s mind off the content of the listening passage. Listening material on tape or radio lacks visual and aural environmental clues. Not seeing the speaker’s body language and facial expressions makes it more difficult for the listener to understand the speaker’s meaning. Unclear sounds resulting from poor-quality equipment can interfere with the listener’s comprehension.
1.6.Teaching listening (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Even when listeners have good listening abilities, there is still a possibility that they might not be able to understand what is said in every situation if they do not actively use their listening ability effectively in each listening situation (Rost, 1991).
Therefore, as language teachers, it is important to conceive ways to incorporate listening into our teaching and provide opportunities inside and outside the classroom for our students to be exposed to significant listening input. Linse (2005) claims that “Learners can and should be actively engaged in listening tasks and activities.” (p.25), meaning that a purpose for listening in a particular task must be defined such as listening for specific details or the main idea. Knowing the purpose for listening helps to reduce the burden of comprehension since listeners are listening for something very specific, which, in turn, will help them determine the type of listening required and the necessary approach to a given task (Richards, 1990).
Teaching listening can therefore be one of the hardest tasks for teachers mainly because listening skills are acquired over time and through practice. However, listeners who are taught and encouraged to use effective strategies, such as avoiding mental translation, for instance, are more likely to have a better L2 listening comprehension (Bloomfield et al., 2011)
1.6.1. Teaching listening strategies to develop learners’ listening skills
Effective language teachers help learners adjust and adapt their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, namely, different types of input and listening purposes, helping them develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation. Listening is regarded as a thinking process (Rost, 1991).
Thus, effective listeners think about the meaning of what they hear. In order to successfully make use of the listening ability, listeners have to make effective decisions regarding what they are about to listen to, and these decisions can be called listening strategies. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
An example of a listening strategy used in a classroom context can be listening activities that give students an idea of what to expect and then listen for confirmation. According to Ellis and Brewster (2014), the objective is to focus children’s attention not only on what they learn but also how they learn as a means to encourage them to become aware of how to develop their own strategies when it comes to learning, leading them to become more effective and independent learners. This can be achieved if teachers support children’s understanding more effectively, in other words, if they manage to steer learners’ attention to specific points of activities that actively support their understanding and guide their attention to specific parts of what they listen to (Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002).
It is also believed that children’s learning depends highly on connections made between what they know and what they are able to understand in the speech they hear (Wells, 1987). However, they do not learn only by listening. If learners do not actively search for meaning, learning will not necessarily occur. Therefore, teaching learners listening strategies can be an opportunity to help learners become better listeners (Harmer, 1998), in the sense that they will be actively engaged in the listening process, improving their chances of acquiring new and solid knowledge of the target language.
However, not all the problems described above can be overcome. For instance, certain features of the message and the speaker are inevitable. But this does not mean that the teacher can do nothing about them. S/he can at least provide the students with suitable listening materials, background and linguistic knowledge, enabling skills, pleasant classroom conditions, and useful exercises to help them discover effective listening strategies (Fan Yang, 1996). (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Grade listening materials according to the students’ level, and provide authentic materials rather than idealized, filtered samples. It is true that natural speech is hard to grade and it is difficult for students to identify the different voices and cope with frequent overlaps. Nevertheless, the materials should progress step by step from semiauthenticity that displays most of the linguistic features of natural speech to total authenticity, because the final aim is to understand natural speech in real life.
Design task-oriented exercises to engage the students’ interest and help them learn listening skills subconsciously. As Ur (1984:25) has said, “Listening exercises are most effective if they are constructed round a task. That is to say, the students are required to do something in response to what they hear that will demonstrate their understanding.” She has suggested some such tasks: expressing agreement or disagreement, taking notes, marking a picture or diagram according to instructions, and answering questions. Compared with traditional multiple-choice questions, taskbased exercises have an obvious advantage: they not only test the students’ listening comprehension but also encourage them to use different kinds of listening skills and strategies to reach their destination in an active way.
Provide students with different kinds of input, such as lectures, radio news, films, TV plays, announcements, everyday conversation, interviews, storytelling, English songs, and so on. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Brown and Yule (1983) categorize spoken texts into three broad types: static, dynamic, and abstract. Texts that describe objects or give instructions are static texts; those that tell a story or recount an incident are dynamic texts; those that focus on someone’s ideas and beliefs rather than on concrete objects are abstract texts. Brown and Yule suggest that the three types of input should be provided according to the difficulties they present and the students’ level. They draw a figure, in which difficulty increases from left to right, and, within any one type of input, complexity increases from top to bottom.
Try to find visual aids or draw pictures and diagrams associated with the listening topics to help students guess or imagine actively.
Give practice in liaisons and elisions in order to help students get used to the acoustic forms of rapid natural speech. It is useful to find rapidly uttered colloquial collocations and ask students to imitate native speakers’ pronunciation.
Make students aware of different native-speaker accents. Of course, strong regional accents are not suitable for training in listening, but in spontaneous conversation native speakers do have certain accents. Moreover, the American accent is quite different from the British and Australian. Therefore, it is necessary to let students deal with different accents, especially in extensive listening.
Select short, simple listening texts with little redundancy for lower-level students and complicated authentic materials with more redundancy for advanced learners. It has been reported that elementary-level students are not capable of interpreting extra information in the redundant messages, whereas advanced listeners may benefit from messages being expanded, paraphrased, etc. (Chaudron 1983). (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
Provide background knowledge and linguistic knowledge, such as complex sentence structures and colloquial words and expressions, as needed.
Give, and try to get, as much feedback as possible. Throughout the course the teacher should bridge the gap between input and students’ response and between the teacher’s feedback and students’ reaction in order to keep activities purposeful. It is important for the listening-class teacher to give students immediate feedback on their performance. This not only promotes error correction but also provides encouragement. It can help students develop confidence in their ability to deal with listening problems. Student feedback can help the teacher judge where the class is going and how it should be guided.
Help students develop the skills of listening with anticipation, listening for specific information, listening for gist, interpretation and inference, listening for intended meaning, listening for attitude, etc., by providing varied tasks and exercises at different levels with different focuses.
1.6.2. The development of listening skills
1.Listening for the gist
Even though it is possible to understand the overall sense or presentation of a situation when listening, learners are aware that information comes in a sequence (Ahmed, 2015). In that sequence of information, there are content words that can help them form the ‘bigger picture’ of what they are listening to. This is often called listening for gist, meaning that, when learners listen for gist they become aware that just by gathering broad information of what they can hear they are already able to obtain a general understanding of a topic or situation and use it to discuss it further.
2.Listening for the specific information
When listening for details, learners are interested in listening for a specific kind of information – a number, name or object – therefore, ignoring anything that sounds irrelevant for that particular situation (Ahmed, 2015). This way they are able to narrow down their search and obtain the details they need. (Khóa Luận: A Study On Ways To Improve Ielts Listening Skill)
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